RD Sharma Class 9 Solutions Chapter 10 Congruent Triangles Ex 10.2

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TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 9
SubjectMaths
ChapterChapter 10
Chapter NameCongruent Triangles
ExerciseEx 10.2

RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Chapter 10 Congruent Triangles Ex 10.2 Download PDF

Question 1.
In the figure, OA and OB are opposite rays:
(i) If x = 25°, what is the value of y?
(ii) If y = 35°, what is the value of x?

Solution:
(i) If x = 25°
∴ 3x = 3 x 25° = 75°
But ∠AOC + ∠BOC = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ ∠AOC + 75° = 180°
⇒ ∠AOC = 180° – 75°
⇒ ∠AOC = 105°
∴ 2y + 5 = 105° ⇒ 2y= 105° – 5° = 100°
⇒ y = 100∘2  = 50°
∴ If x = 25° then y = 50°
(ii) If y = 35°, then ∠AOC = 2y + 5
∴ 2y + 5 = 2 x 35° + 5 = 70° + 5 = 75°
But ∠AOC + ∠BOC = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ 75° + ∠BOC = 180°
⇒ ∠BOC = 180°-75°= 105°
∴ 3x = 105° ⇒ x = 105∘3 = 35°
∴ x = 35°

Question 2.
In the figure, write all pairs of adjacent angles and all the linear pairs.

Solution:
In the given figure,
(i) ∠AOD, ∠COD; ∠BOC, ∠COD; ∠AOD, ∠BOD and ∠AOC, ∠BOC are the pairs of adjacent angles.
(ii) ∠AOD, ∠BOD and ∠AOC, ∠BOC are the pairs of linear pairs.

Question 3.
In the figure, find x, further find ∠BOC, ∠COD and ∠AOD.

Solution:
In the figure,
AOB is a straight line
∴ ∠AOD + ∠DOB = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ ∠AOD + ∠DOC + ∠COB = 180°
⇒ x+ 10° + x + x + 20 = 180°
⇒ 3x + 30° = 180°
⇒ 3x= 180° -30°= 150°
⇒ x = 150∘3 = 50°
∴ x = 50°
Now ∠BOC =x + 20° = 50° + 20° = 70°
∠COD = x = 50°
and ∠AOD = x + 10° = 50° + 10° = 60°

Question 4.
In the figure, rays OA, OB, OC, OD and OE have the common end point O. Show that ∠AOB + ∠BOC + ∠COD + ∠DOE + ∠EOA = 360°.

Solution:
Produce AO to F such that AOF is a straight line
Now ∠AOB + ∠BOF = 180° (Linear pair)

⇒ ∠AOB + ∠BOC + ∠COF = 180° …(i)
Similarly, ∠AOE + ∠EOF = 180°
⇒ ∠AOE + ∠EOD + ∠DOF = 180° …(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii)
∠AOB + ∠BOC + ∠COF + ∠DOF + ∠EOD + ∠AOE = 180° + 180°
⇒ ∠AOB + ∠BOC + ∠COD + ∠DOE + ∠EOA = 360°
Hence proved.

Question 5.
In the figure, ∠AOC and ∠BOC form a linear pair. If a – 2b = 30°, find a and b.

Solution:
∠AOC + ∠BOC = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ a + 6 = 180° …(i)
and a – 2b = 30° …(ii)
Subtracting (ii) from (i), 3b = 150°
⇒ b = 150∘3 = 50°
and a + 50° = 180°
⇒ a= 180°-50°= 130°
∴ a = 130°, b = 50°

Question 6.
How many pairs of adjacent angles are formed when two lines intersect in a point?
Solution:
If two lines AB and CD intersect each other at a point O, then four pairs of linear pairs are formed i.e.
∠AOC, ∠BOC; ∠BOC, ∠BOD; ∠BOD, ∠AOD and ∠AOD, ∠AOC

Question 7.
How many pairs of adjacent angles, in all, can you name in the figure.

Solution:
In the given figure 10 pairs of adjacent angles are formed as given below:
∠AOB, ∠BOC; ∠AOB, ∠BOD; ∠AOC, ∠COD; ∠AOD, ∠BOE; ∠AOB, ∠BOE; ∠AOC, ∠COF; ∠BOC, ∠COD; ∠BOC, ∠COE; ∠COD, ∠DOE and ∠BOD, ∠DOE

Question 8.
In the figure, determine the value of x.

Solution:
In the figure
∠AOC + ∠COB + ∠BOD +∠AOD = 360 (angles at a point )

⇒ 3x + 3x + x + 150° = 360°
⇒ 7x – 360° – 150° = 210°
⇒ x = 210∘7 = 30°
∴ x = 30°

Question 9.
In the figure, AOC is a line, find x.

Solution:
In the figure,
∠AOB + ∠BOC = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ 70° + 2x = 180°
⇒ 2x = 180° – 70°
⇒ 2x = 110°⇒x = 110∘2 = 55°
∴ x = 55°

Question 10.
In the figure, POS is a line, find x.

Solution:
In the figure, POS is a line
∴ ∠POQ + ∠QOS = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ ∠POQ + ∠QOR + ∠ROS = 180°
⇒ 60° + 4x + 40° = 180°
⇒ 4x + 100° – 180°
⇒ 4x = 180° – 100° = 80°
⇒ x = 80∘4 =20°
∴ x = 20°

Question 11.
In the figure, ACB is a line such that ∠DCA = 5x and ∠DCB = 4x. Find the value of x.

Solution:
ACB is a line, ∠DCA = 5x and ∠DCB = 4x
∠ACD + ∠DCB = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ 5x + 4x = 180° ⇒ 9x = 180°
⇒ x = 180∘9 = 20°
∴ x = 20°
∴ ∠ACD = 5x = 5 x 20° = 100° and ∠DCB = 4x = 4 x 20° = 80°

Question 12.
Given ∠POR = 3x and ∠QOR = 2x + 10°, find the value ofx for which POQ will be a line.

Solution:
∠POR = 3x and ∠QOR = 2x + 10°
If POQ is a line, then
∠POR + ∠QOR = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ 3x + 2x + 10° = 180°
⇒ 5x = 180° – 10° = 170°
⇒ x = 170∘5 = 34°
∴ x = 34°

Question 13.
What value ofy would make AOB, a line in the figure, if ∠AOC = 4y and ∠BOC = (6y + 30).

Solution:
In the figure,
AOB is a line if
∠AOC + ∠BOC = 180°
⇒ 6y + 30° + 4y= 180°
⇒ 10y= 180°-30°= 150°
150°
⇒ y = 150∘10 = 15°
∴ y = 15°

Question 14.
In the figure, OP, OQ, OR and OS are four rays. Prove that: ∠POQ + ∠QOR + ∠SOR + ∠POS = 360° [NCERT]

Solution:
In the figure, OP, OQ, OR and OS are the rays from O
To prove : ∠POQ + ∠QOR + ∠SOR + ∠POS = 360°
Construction : Produce PO to E

Proof: ∠POQ + ∠QOE = 180° (Linear pair)
Similarly, ∠EOS + ∠POS = 180°
Adding we get,
∠POQ + ∠QOR + ∠ROE + ∠EOS + ∠POS = 180° + 180° ,
⇒ ∠POQ + ∠QOR + ∠ROS + ∠POS = 360° Hence ∠POQ + ∠QOR + ∠SOR + ∠POS = 360°

Question 15.
In the figure, ray OS stand on a line POQ. Ray OR and ray OT are angle bisectors of ∠POS and ∠SOQ respectively. If ∠POS = x, find ∠ROT. [NCERT]

Solution:
Ray OR stands on a line POQ forming ∠POS and ∠QOS

OR and OT the angle bisects of ∠POS and ∠QOS respectively. ∠POS = x
But ∠POS + ∠QOS = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ x + ∠QOS = 180°
⇒ ∠QOS = 180° – x
∵ OR and OT are the bisectors of angle

Question 16.
In the figure, lines PQ and RS intersect each other at point O. If ∠POR : ∠ROQ = 5 : 7. Find all the angles. [NCERT]

Solution:
Lines PQ and PR, intersect each other at O
∵ Vertically opposite angles are equal
∴ ∠POR = ∠QOS and ∠ROQ = ∠POS
∠POR : ∠ROQ = 5:7
Let ∠POR = 5x and ∠ROQ = 7x
But ∠POR + ∠ROQ = 180° (Linear pair)
∴ 5x + 7x = 180° ⇒ 12x = 180°
⇒ x = 180∘12 = 15°
∴ ∠POR = 5x = 5 x 15° = 75°
and ∠ROQ = 7x = 7 x 15° = 105°
But ∠QOS = POR = 75° (Vertically opposite angles)
and ∠POS = ∠ROQ = 105°

Question 17.
In the figure, a is greater than b by one third of a right-angle. Find the values of a and b.

Solution:
In the figure,
∠AOC + ∠BOC = 180° (Linear pair)
⇒ a + b =180° …(i)
But a = b + 13 x 90° = b + 30°
⇒ a – b = 30° …(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii)
210°
2a = 210° ⇒ a = 210∘2 = 105°
and 105° + b = 180°
⇒ b = 180° – 105°
∴ b = 75°
Hence a = 105°, b = 75°

Question 18.
In the figure, ∠AOF and ∠FOG form a linear pair.
∠EOB = ∠FOC = 90° and ∠DOC = ∠FOG = ∠AOB = 30°

(i) Find the measures of ∠FOE, ∠COB and ∠DOE.
(ii) Name all the right angles.
(iii) Name three pairs of adjacent complementary angles.
(iv) Name three pairs of adjacent supplementary angles.
(v) Name three pairs of adjacent angles.
Solution:
In the figure,
∠AOF and ∠FOG form a linear pair
∠EOB = ∠FOC = 90°
∠DOC = ∠FOG = ∠AOB = 30°

(i) ∠BOE = 90°, ∠AOB = 30°
But ∠BOE + ∠AOB + ∠EOG = 180°
⇒ 30° + 90° + ∠EOG = 180°
∴∠EOG = 180° – 30° – 90° = 60°
But ∠FOG = 30°
∴ ∠FOE = 60° – 30° = 30°
∠COD = 30°, ∠COF = 90°
∴ ∠DOF = 90° – 30° = 60°
∠DOE = ∠DOF – ∠EOF
= 60° – 30° = 30°
∠BOC = BOE – ∠COE
= 90° – 30° – 30° = 90° – 60° = 30°
(ii) Right angles are,
∠AOD = 30° + 30° + 30° = 90°
∠BOE = 30° + 30° + 30° = 90°
∠COF = 30° + 30° + 30° = 90°
and ∠DOG = 30° + 30° + 30° = 90°
(iii) Pairs of adjacent complementaiy angles are ∠AOB, ∠BOD; ∠AOC, ∠COD; ∠BOC, ∠COE
(iv) Pairs of adjacent supplementary angles are ∠AOB, ∠BOG; ∠AOC, ∠COG and ∠AOD, ∠DOG
(v) Pairs of adjacent angles are ∠BOC, ∠COD; ∠COD, ∠DOE and ∠DOE, ∠EOF.

Question 19.
In the figure, POQ is a line. Ray OR is perpendicular to line PQ. OS is another ray lying between rays OP and OR. Prove that ∠ROS = 12(∠QOS – ∠POS). [NCERT]

Solution:
Ray OR ⊥ ROQ. OS is another ray lying between OP and OR.

To prove : ∠ROS = 12(∠QOS – ∠POS)
Proof : ∵ RO ⊥ POQ
∴ ∠POR = 90°
⇒ ∠POS + ∠ROS = 90° …(i)
⇒ ∠ROS = 90° – ∠POS
But ∠POS + ∠QOS = 180° (Linear pair)
= 2(∠POS + ∠ROS) [From (i)]
∠POS + ∠QOS = 2∠ROS + 2∠POS
⇒ 2∠ROS = ∠POS + ∠QOS – 2∠POS
= ∠QOS – ∠POS
∴ ROS = 12 (∠QOS – ∠POS)

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