RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1



In this chapter, we provide RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 for English medium students, Which will very helpful for every student in their exams. Students can download the latest RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 Maths pdf, free RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 book pdf download. Now you will get step by step solution to each question.

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 8
SubjectMaths
ChapterChapter 16
Chapter NameUnderstanding Shapes
ExerciseEx 16.1

RD Sharma Solutions for Class 8 Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 Download PDF

Question 1.
Define the following terms:
(i) Quadrilateral
(ii) Convex Quadrilateral.
Solution:
(i) Quadrilateral: A closed figure made of four line segments is called a quadrilateral such that:
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 1
(a) no three points of them are collinear
(b) the line segments do not intersect except at their ends points.
(ii) Convex quadrilateral: A quadrilateral is called a convex quadrilateral of the line containing any side of the quadrilateral has the remaining vertices on the same side of it. In the figure, quadrilateral ABCD is a convex quadrilateral.
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 2

Question 2.
In a quadrilateral, define each of the following:
(i) Sides
(ii) Vertices
(iii) Angles
(iv) Diagonals
(v) Adjacent angles
(vi) Adjacent sides
(vii) Opposite sides
(viii) Opposite angles
(ix) Interior
(x) Exterior
Solution:
(i) Sides: In a quadrilateral ABCD, form line segments AB, BC, CD and DA are called sides of the quadrilateral.
(ii) Vertices : The ends points are called the vertices of the quadrilateral. Here in the figure, A, B, C and D are its vertices.
(iii) Angles: A quadrilateral has four angles which are at their vertices. In the figure, ∠A, ∠B, ∠C and ∠D are its angles.
(iv) Diagonals: The line segment joining the opposite vertices is called diagonal. A quadrilateral has two diagonals.
(v) Adjacent Angles : The angles having a common arm (side) are called adjacent angles.
(vi) Adjacent sides : If two sides of a quadrilateral have a common end-point, these are called adjacent sides.
(vii) Opposite sides: If two sides do not have a common end-point of a quadrilateral, they are called opposite sides.
(viii) Opposite angles : The angles which are not adjacent are called opposite angles.
(ix) Interior: The region which is surrounded by the sides of the quadrilateral is called its interior.
(x) Exterior : The part of the plane made up by all points as the not enclosed by the quadrilateral, is called its exterior.
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 3

Question 3.
Complete each of the following, so as to make a true statement:
(i) A quadrilateral has ………… sides.
(ii) A quadrilateral has ………… angles.
(iii) A quadrilateral has ……….. vertices, no three of which are …………
(iv) A quadrilateral has …………. diagonals.
(v) The number of pairs of adjacent angles of a quadrilateral is ………….
(vi) The number of pairs of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is ……………
(vii) The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is …………
(viii) A diagonal of a quadrilateral is a line segment that joins two ………. vertices of the quadrilateral.
(ix) The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is …………. right angles.
(x) The measure of each angle of a convex quadrilateral is …………. 180°.
(xi) In a quadrilateral the point of intersection of the diagonals lies in ………….. of the quadrilateral.
(xii) A point is in the interior of a convex quadrilateral, if it is in the ……….. of its two opposite angles.
(xiii) A quadrilateral is convex if for each side, the remaining …………. lie on the same side of the line containing the side.
Solution:
(i) A quadrilateral has four sides.
(a) A quadrilateral has four angles.
(iii) A quadrilateral has four vertices, no three of which are collinear .
(iv) A quadrilateral has two diagonals.
(v) The number of pairs of adjacent angles of a quadrilateral is four .
(vi) The number of pairs of opposite angles ot a quadrilateral is two.
(vii) The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360°.
(viii) A diagonal of a quadrilateral is a line segment that join two opposite vertices of the quadrilateral.
(ix) The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 4 right angles.
(x) The measure of each angle of a convex quadrilateral is less than 180°.
(xi) In a quadrilateral the point of intersection of the diagonals lies in interior of the quadrilateral.
(xii) A point is in the interior of a convex quadrilateral, if it is in the interior of its two opposite angles.
(xiii) A quadrilateral is convex if for each side, the remaining vertices lie on the same side of the line containing the side.

Question 4.
In the figure, ABCD is a quadrilateral.
(i) Name a pair of adjacent sides.
(ii) Name a pair of opposite sides.
(iii) How many pairs of adjacent sides are there?
(iv) How many pairs of Opposite sides are there ?
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 4
(v) Name a pair of adjacent angles.
(vi) Name a pair of opposite angles.
(vii) How many pairs of adjacent angles are there ?
(viii) How many pairs of opposite angles are there ?
Solution:
In the figure, ABCD is a quadrilateral
(i) Pairs of adjacent sides are AB, BC, BC, CD, CD, DA, DA, AB.
(ii) Pairs of opposite sides are AB and CD; BC and AD.
(iii) There are four pairs of adjacent sides.
(iv) There are two pairs of opposite sides.
(v) Pairs of adjacent angles are ∠A, ∠B; ∠B, ∠C; ∠C, ∠D; ∠D, ∠A.
(vi) Pairs of opposite angles are ∠A and ∠C; ∠B and ∠D.
(vii) There are four pairs of adjacent angles.
(viii) There are two pairs of opposite angles.

Question 5.
The angles of a quadrilateral are 110°, 72°, 55° and x°. Find the value of x.
Solution:
Sum of four angles of quadrilateral is 360°
110° + 12° + 55° + x° = 360°
⇒ 237° + x° = 360°
⇒ x° = 360° – 237° = 123°
x = 123°

Question 6.
The three angles of a quadrilateral are respectively equal to 110°, 50° and 40°. Find its fourth angle.
Solution:
The sum of four angles of a quadrilateral = 360°
Three angles are 110°, 50° and 40°
Let fourth angle = x
Then 110° + 50° + 40° + x° = 360°
⇒ 200° + x° = 360°
⇒ x = 360° – 200° = 160°
x = 160°

Question 7.
A quadrilateral has three acute angles each measures 80°. What is the measure of fourth angle ?
Solution:
Sum of four angles of a quadrilateral = 360°
Sum of three angles having each angle equal to 80° = 80° x 3 = 240°
Let fourth angle = x
Then 240° + x = 360°
⇒ x° = 360° – 240°
⇒ x° = 120°
Fourth angle = 120°

Question 8.
A quadrilateral has all its four angles of the same measure. What is the measure of each ?
Solution:
Let each equal angle of a quadrilateral = x
4x° = 360°
⇒ x° = 3604 = 90°
Each angle will be = 90°

Question 9.
Two angles of a quadrilateral are of measure 65° and the other two angles are equal. What is the measure of each of these two angles ?
Solution:
Measures of two angles each = 65°
Sum of these two angles = 2 x 65°= 130°
But sum of four angles of a quadrilateral = 360°
Sum of the remaining two angles = 360° – 130° = 230°
But these are equal to each other
Measure of each angle = 2302 = 115°

Question 10.
Three angles of a quadrilateral are equal. Fourth angle is of measure 150°. What is the measure of equal angles ?
Solution:
Sum of four angles of a quadrilateral = 360°
One angle = 150°
Sum of remaining three angles = 360° – 150° = 210°
But these three angles are equal
Measure of each angle = 2103 = 70°

Question 11.
The four angles of a quadrilateral are as 3 : 5 : 7 : 9. Find the angles.
Solution:
Sum of four angles of a quadrilateral = 360°
and ratio in angles = 3 : 5 : 7 : 9
Let first angles = 2x
Then second angle = 5x
third angle = 7x
and fourth angle = 9x
3x + 5x + 7x + 9x = 360°
⇒ 24x = 369°
⇒ x = 36024 = 15°
First angle = 3x = 3 x 15° = 45°
second angle = 5x = 5 x 15° = 75°
third angle = 7x = 7 x 15° = 105°
and fourth angle = 9x = 9 x 15° = 135°

Question 12.
If the sum of the two angles of a quadrilateral is 180°, what is the sum of the remaining two angles ?
Solution:
Sum of four angles of a quadrilateral = 360°
and sum of two angle out of these = 180°
Sum of other two angles will be = 360° – 180° = 180°

Question 13.
In the figure, find the measure of ∠MPN.
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 5
Solution:
In the figure, OMPN is a quadrilateral in which
∠O = 45°, ∠M = ∠N = 90° (PM ⊥ OA and PN ⊥ OB)
Let ∠MPN = x°
∠O + ∠M + ∠N + ∠MPN = 360° (Sum of angles of a quadrilateral)
⇒ 45° + 90° + 90° + x° = 360°
⇒ 225° + x° = 360°
⇒ x° = 360° – 225°
⇒x = 135°
∠MPN = 135°

Question 14.
The sides of a quadrilateral are produced in order. What is the sum of the four exterior angles ?
Solution:
The sides of a quadrilateral ABCD are produced in order, forming exterior angles ∠1, ∠2, ∠3 and ∠4.
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 6
Now ∠DAB + ∠1 = 180° (Linear pair) ……(i)
Similarly,
∠ABC + ∠2 = 180°
∠BCD + ∠3 = 180°
and ∠CDA + ∠4 = 180°
Adding, we get
∠DAB + ∠1 + ∠ABC + ∠2 + ∠BCD + ∠3 + ∠CDA + ∠4 = 180° + 180° + 180° + 180° = 720°
⇒ ∠DAB + ∠ABC + ∠CDA + ∠ADC + ∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 = 720°
But ∠DAB + ∠ABC + ∠CDA + ∠ADB = 360° (Sum of angles of a quadrilateral)
360° + ∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 = 720°
⇒ ∠l + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 = 720° – 360° = 360°
Sum of exterior angles = 360°

Question 15.
In the figure, the bisectors of ∠A and ∠B meet at a point P. If ∠C = 100° and ∠D = 50°, find the measure of ∠APB.
Solution:
In quadrilateral ABCD,
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 7
∠D = 50°, ∠C = 100°
PA and PB are the bisectors of ∠A and ∠B.
In quadrilateral ABCD,
∠A + ∠B + ∠C + ∠D = 360° (Sum of angles of a quadrilateral)
⇒ ∠A + ∠B + 100° + 50° = 360°
⇒ ∠A + ∠B + 150° = 360°’
⇒ ∠A + ∠B = 360° – 150° = 210°
and 12 ∠A + 12 ∠B = 2102 = 105°
(PA and PB are bisector of ∠A and ∠B respectively)
∠PAB + ∠PBA = 105°
⇒ ∠PAB + ∠PBA + ∠APB = 180° (Sum of angles of a triangle)
⇒ 105° + ∠APB = 180°
⇒ ∠APB = 180° – 105° = 75°
∠APB = 75°

Question 16.
In a quadrilateral ABCD, the angles A, B, C and D are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 4 : 5. Find the measure of each angle of the quadrilateral.
Solution:
Sum of angles A, B, C and D of a quadrilateral = 360°
i.e. ∠A + ∠B + ∠C + ∠D = 360°
But ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 1 : 2 : 4 : 5
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 8
Let ∠A = x,
Then ∠B = 2x
∠C = 4x
∠D = 5x
x + 2x + 4x + 5x = 360°
⇒ 12x = 360°
⇒ x = 36012 = 30°
∠A = x = 30°
∠B = 2x = 2 x 30° = 60°
∠C = 4x = 4 x 30° = 120°
∠D = 5A = 5 x 30° = 150°

Question 17.
In a quadrilateral ABCD, CO and DO are the bisectors of ∠C and ∠D respectively. Prove that ∠COD = 12 (∠A + ∠B).
Solution:
In quadrilateral ABCD,
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 9
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 10

Question 18.
Find the number of sides of a regular polygon when each of its angles has a measures of
(i) 160°
(ii) 135°
(iii) 175°
(iv) 162°
(v) 150°.
Solution:
In a n-sided regular polygon, each angle
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 11
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 12
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 13
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 14

Question 19.
Find the number of degrees in each exterior angle of a regular pentagon.
Solution:
In a pentagon or a polygon, sum of exterior angles formed by producing the sides in order, is four right angles or 360°
Each exterior angle = 3605 = 72°

Question 20.
The measure of angles of a hexagon are x°, (x – 5)° (x – 5)°, (2x – 5)°, (2x – 5)°, (2x + 20)°. Find the value of x.
Solution:
We know that the sum of interior angels of a hexagon = 720° (180° x 4)
⇒ x + x – 5 + x – 5 + 2x – 5 + 2x – 5 + 2x + 20 = 720°
⇒ 9x – 20 + 20 = 720
⇒ 9x = 720
⇒ x = 7209 = 80°
x = 80°

Question 21.
In a convex hexagon, prove that the sum of all interior angles is equal to twice the sum of its exterior angles formed by producing the sides in the same order.
Solution:
In a convex hexagon ABCDEF, its sides AB, BG, CD, DE, EF and FA are produced in order forming exterior angles a, b, c, d, e, f
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 15
∠a + ∠b + ∠c + ∠d + ∠e + ∠f = 4 right angles (By definition)
By joining AC, AD, and AE, 4 triangles ABC, ACD, ADE and AEF are formed
In ∆ABC,
∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 = 180° = 2 right angle (Sum of angles of a triangle) …… (i)
Similarly,
In ∆ACD,
∠4 +∠5 + ∠6 = 180° = 2 right angles
In ∆ADE,
∠1 + ∠8 + ∠9 = 2 right angles …(iii)
In ∆AEF,
∠10 + ∠11 + ∠12 = 2 right angles …(iv)
Joining (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 + ∠5 + ∠6 + ∠7 + ∠8 + ∠9 + ∠10 + ∠11 + ∠12 = 8 right angles
⇒ ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠5 + ∠6 + ∠8 + ∠9 + ∠11 + ∠12 + ∠1 + ∠4 + ∠7 + ∠10 = 8 right angles
⇒ ∠B + ∠C + ∠D + ∠E +∠F + ∠A = 8 right angles
⇒ ∠A + ∠B + ∠C + ∠D + ∠E + ∠F = 2 (∠a + ∠b + ∠c + ∠d + ∠e + ∠f)
Sum of all interior angles = 2(the sum of exterior angles)
Hence proved.

Question 22.
The sum of the interior angles of a polygon is three times the sum of its exterior angles. Determine the number of sides of the polygon.
Solution:
Let number of sides of a regular polygon = n
Each interior angle = 2n–4n right angles
Sum of all interior angles = 2n–4n x n
right angles = (2n – 4) right angles
But sum of exterior angles = 4 right angles
According to the condition,
(2n – 4) = 3 x 4 (in right angles)
⇒ 2n – 4 = 12
⇒ 2n = 12 + 4 = 16
⇒ n = 8
Number of sides of the polygon = 8

Question 23.
Determine the number of sides of a polygon whose exterior and interior angles are in the ratio 1 : 5.
Solution:
Ratio in exterior angle and interior angles of a regular polygon = 1 : 5
But sum of interior and exterior angles = 180° (Linear pair)
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 16
By cross multiplication:
6n – 12 = 5n
⇒ 6n – 5n = 12
⇒ n = 12
Number of sides of polygon is 12

Question 24.
PQRSTU is a regular hexagon. Determine each angle of ∆PQT.
Solution:
In regular hexagon, PQRSTU, diagonals PT and QT are joined.
RD Sharma Class 8 Solutions Chapter 16 Understanding Shapes II Ex 16.1 17
In ∆PUT, PU = UT
∠UPT = ∠UTP
But ∠UPT + ∠UTP = 180° – ∠U = 180° – 120° = 60°
∠UPT = ∠UTP = 30°
∠TPQ = 120° – 30° = 90° (QT is diagonal which bisect ∠Q and ∠T)
∠PQT = 1202 = 60°
Now in ∆PQT,
∠TPQ + ∠PQT + ∠PTQ = 180° (Sum of angles of a triangle)
⇒ 90° + 60° + ∠PTQ = 180°
⇒ 150° + ∠PTQ = 180°
⇒ ∠PTQ = 180° – 150° = 30°
Hence in ∆PQT,
∠P = 90°, ∠Q = 60° and ∠T = 30°

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